Authors: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue and Dr. Brian Slack
1. The Setting of Road Transport SystemsTwo major modes are composing the land transport system, roads and railways. Obviously, roads were established first, as rail technology only became available by the 18th century, in the midst on the industrial revolution. Historical considerations are important in assessing the structure of current land transportation networks. Modern roads tend to follow the structure established by previous roads, as it was the case for the modern European road network (especially in Italy, France and Britain) that follows the structure established by the Roman road network centuries before.
The first land roads took their origins from trails which were generally used to move from one hunting territory to another. With the emergence of the first forms of nation-states trails started to be used for commercial purposes as trade expanded and some became roads, especially through the domestication of animals such as horses, mules and camels. The use of wheeled vehicles encouraged construction of better roads to support the additional weight. However, a road transport system requires a level of labor organization and administrative control that could only be provided by a form of governmental oversight offering some military protection over trade routes. By 3,000 BC the first road systems appeared in Mesopotamia and asphalt was used to pave roads in Babylon by 625 BC. The Persian Empire had a road of 2,300 km in the 5th century BC. However, the first major road system was established by the Roman Empire from 300 BC and onwards, mainly for economic, military and administrative reasons. It relied on solid road engineering methods, including the laying of foundations and the construction of bridges. This was also linked with the establishment of pan-continental trading routes, such as the Silk Road, linking Europe and Asia by 100 BC.
Following the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, integrated road transportation fell out of favor as most roads were locally constructed and maintained. Because of the lack of maintenance of many road segments, land transport became a very hazardous activity. It is not until the creation of modern nation-states in the 17th century that national road transportation systems were formally established. The French, through central government efforts, build their Royal Roads system spanning 24,000 km, over which a public transport service of stage-coaches carrying passengers and mail was established. The British, mainly through private efforts, built a 32,000 km system of turnpikes where tolls have to be paid for road usage. A similar initiative was undertaken in the United States in the 19th century and by the early 20th century, a network of 3 million km of roads, most unpaved, was in operation. 1794 marks the beginning of modern road transportation with the first mail coach service between London and Bristol, operating under a timetable.
Also of high significance were technological innovations in road engineering that permitted the construction of reliable and low cost hard surface roads. One such achievement came from the Scottish engineer McAdam who developed a process (later known as macadam) where hard and waterproof road surfaces were made by cemented crushed stone, bound together either with water or with bitumen. It provided a cheaper, durable, smooth and non-slippery pavement, which considerably improved the reliability and the travel speed on roads. Many roads could now be used year round.
Road development accelerated in the first half of the 20th century. By the 1920s, the first all-weather transcontinental highway, the Lincoln Highway, spanned over 5,300 km between New York and San Francisco. The Germans were however the first to build the modern highway (autobahn) in 1932 with specifications such as restricted access, overpasses and road separation that would eventually become common characteristics of highway systems. The post World War Two era represented a period of rapid expansion of road transportation networks worldwide. The most remarkable achievement is without doubt the American Interstate highway system initiated in 1956. Its strategic purpose was to provide a national road system servicing the American economy and also able to support troop movements and act as air strips in case of an emergency. About 56,000 km was built from the 1950s to the 1970s, but between 1975 and 2006 only 15,000 km were added to the system, underlining growing construction costs and diminishing returns. Overall, about 70,000 km of four-lane and six-lane highways were constructed, linking all major American cities, coast to coast. A similar project took place in Canada with the Trans-Canada highway completed in 1962. By the 1970s, every modern nation has constructed a national highway system, which in the case of Western Europe resulted in a pan-European system. This trend now takes place in many industrializing countries. For instance, China is building a national highway system that expanded to 53,000 km in 2007, with construction taking place at a pace of about 2,000 km per year.
2. The Spatial Impacts of Road TransportationRoad transportation is the mode that has expanded the most over the last 50 years, both for passengers and freight transportation. Such growth in road freight transport has been fuelled largely by trade liberalization as modal shares of trade between the United States and its NAFTA partners suggest. This is the result of growth of the loading capacity of vehicle and an adaptation of vehicle to freight (e.g. perishables, fuel, construction materials, etc.) or passengers (e.g. school bus) demand for speed, autonomy and flexibility. New types of problems, such as a significant growth of fuel consumption, increasing environmental externalities, traffic congestion and a multiplication of road accidents have also emerged.
All road transport modes have limited potential to achieve economies of scale. This is due to size and weight constraints imposed by governments and also by the technical and economic limits of engines. In most jurisdictions, trucks and busses have specific weight and length restrictions which are imposed for safety reasons. In addition, there are serious limits on the traction capacities of cars, buses and trucks because of the considerable increases in energy consumption that accompany increases in the vehicle weight. For these reasons the carrying capacities of individual road vehicles are limited.
Road transportation is characterized by acute geographical disparities in traffic. It is not uncommon that 20% of the road network supports 60 to 80% of the traffic. This observation is expanded by the fact that developed and developing countries have important differences in terms of the density, capacity and the quality of road transport infrastructures. Acute geographical variations of the inventory are therefore the norm.
Technological evolution of road transport vehicles was a continuous trend since the construction of the first automobiles. The basic technology is however very similar, as road transportation massively relies on the internal combustion engine. In the future new materials (ceramic, plastic, aluminum, composite materials etc...), fuels (electricity, hydrogen, natural gas, etc...) and information technologies (vehicle control, location, navigation and toll collection) are expected to be included in cars and improve the efficiency of road transport systems. There are however signs that a peak mobility can be achieved for road transportation when the car has been diffused to some optimum level and that countervailing forces are at play such as congestion, the aging of the population or a decline in income.
The urban population has increased considerably over the last 50 years and about 50% of the global population was urbanized by 2000 (about 3 billion people). It is impossible for developing countries to have a rates of individual vehicle ownership similar to those of developed countries, especially compared with the United States, not because of a lack of income, but the physical lack of space to accommodate a high level of car ownership. This will impose new or alternative methods to transport freight and passengers over roads in urban areas. The reduction of vehicle emissions and the impacts of infrastructures on the environment are mandatory to promote a sustainable environment. Under such circumstances cycling is thus to be considered an alternative to the automobile in urban areas, widely adopted in developing countries, although more for economic reasons. A symbiosis between types of roads and types of traffic with specialization (reserved lanes and hours) is to be expected.
Road transport, however, possesses significant advantages over other modes:
- The capital cost of vehicles is relatively small. This produces several key characteristics of road transport. Low vehicle costs make it comparatively easy for new users to gain entry, which helps ensure that the trucking industry, for example, is highly competitive. Low capital costs also ensure that innovations and new technologies can diffuse quickly through the industry.
- Another advantage of road transport is the high relative speed of vehicles, the major constraint being government-imposed speed limits.
- One of its most important attributes is the flexibility of route choice, once a network of roads is provided. Road transport has the unique opportunity of providing door to door service for both passengers and freight.
3. Infrastructures and InvestmentsRoad infrastructures are moderately expensive to provide, but there is a wide divergence of costs, from a gravel road to a multi-lane urban expressway. Because vehicles have the means to climb moderate slopes, physical obstacles are less important than for some other land modes, namely rail. Most roads are provided as a public good by governments, while the vast majority of vehicles are owned privately. Capital costs, therefore, are generally assumed by the society, and do not fall as heavily on one source as is the case for other modes. Unlike many transport infrastructure where the network is paid for by the user through a pricing mechanism, 95% of the financing of road infrastructure is covered by the public sector, leaving the reminder covered by tolls.
The public offering of free road infrastructure conveys several advantages to the private sector, but can also lead to serious problems. The main advantage is clear; the users of roads commonly do not bear the full operating costs implying that road transportation tends to be below real market price. For road freight transportation, this can be seen as a subsidy as road maintenance is not part of the operating costs, but is indirectly present with taxes and tolls. As long as there is spare road capacity this situation works for the benefit of trucking. However, when congestion starts to arise, users have limited, if any, influence on the construction of new and improved infrastructure to mitigate the problem since they do not own the infrastructure and are using it for free. Lobbying public entities to receive public road infrastructure investments can be a very long process, subject to constant delays and changes. Road users thus become trapped in a situation they can do little to change since it is provided free of charge. This can be labeled as the "free roads curse". An entity owning and operating its own network, such an a rail company in North America, has the advantage of directly implementing improvements with its own capital if congestion arise on a segment of its network. It is thus better placed to cope with congestion.
Governments can expropriate the necessary land for road construction since a private enterprise may have difficulties to expropriate without government support. Another important aspect about roads is their economies of scale and their indivisibility, underlining that the construction and maintenance of roads is cheaper when the system is extensive, but to a limit. However, all road transport modes have limited abilities to achieve scale economies. This is due to the size constraints imposed by governments and also by the technical and economic limits of the power sources and what infrastructures can bear weight-wise. In most jurisdictions, trucks and busses have specific weight and length restrictions which are imposed for safety reasons. In addition, there are serious limits on the traction capacities of cars, busses and trucks because of the considerable increases in energy consumption that accompany increases in the weight of the unit. For these reasons the carrying capacities of individual road vehicles are limited. Roads are thus costly infrastructures, but also sources of revenue:
- Costs. They include rights of way, development costs (planning), construction costs, maintenance and administration costs, losses in land taxes (urban environment), expropriation costs (money and time), and external costs (accidents and pollution).
- Revenue. They include registration, gas (taxes), purchases of vehicles (taxes), tolls, parking, and insurance fees. Another form of indirect income concerns traffic violations (e.g. speeding) that are using the pretext of public safety to hide revenue generation practices by local governments.
We use various products in our daily life. But do we know where are they produced? Many
of them are produced at different places far away from our locality. So how do we get them
at our place? These are carried on from all those places through rail, road or air and are
made available to us at our locality. You must have seen trucks, tempo, bullock carts etc.,
which carry products or even raw materials from one place to another. Similarly, you also
must have seen people traveling from one place to another by buses, trains, cars, scooters,
rickshaws, cycles, etc.
This movement of goods and individuals is very important in business. Because of this, raw
materials reach the place of manufacture, finished products reach the place of sale or
consumption, individuals move around to manage the business, etc. In this lesson, let us
learn how goods and passengers move from one place to another.
After studying this lesson, you will be able to:
! state the meaning of transport;
! recognise the importance of transport;
! identify the various modes of transport; and
! describe the advantages and limitations of different modes of transport.
10.2 Meaning of Transport
Transport refers to the activity that facilitates physical movement of goods as well as
individuals from one place to another. In business, it is considered as an auxiliary to trade,
that means, it supports trade and industry in carrying raw materials to the place of production
and distributing finished products for consumption. Individuals or business firms that engage
themselves in such activities are called transporters. Generally, transporters carry raw material,
finished products, passangers, etc. from one place to another. So it removes the distance
barrier. Now-a-days goods produced at one place are readily available at distant places.
People move freely throughout the world because of transport. It is associated with every
step of our life. Without transport, we, as well as business units cannot move a singe step.
Let us discuss its importance.
10.3 Importance of Transport
Followings are the points of importance of transport.
a. Makes available raw materials to manufacturers or producers: Transport makes
it possible to carry raw materials from places where they are available, to places
where they can be processed and assembled into finished goods.
b. Makes available goods to customers: Transport makes possible movement of
goods from one place to another with great ease and speed. Thus, consumers
spread in different parts of the country have the benefit of consuming goods
produced at distant places.
c. Enhances standard of living: Easy means of transport facilitates large-scale
production at low costs. It gives consumers the choice to make use of different quantities
of goods at different prices. So it raises the standard of living of the people.
d. Helps during emergencies and natural calamities: In times of national crisis, due
to war or internal disturbance, transport helps in quick movement of troops and the
supplies needed in the operation.
e. Helps in creation of employment: Transport provides employment opportunity to
individuals as drivers, conductors, pilots, cabin crew, captain of the ship, etc. who are
directly engaged in transport business. It also provides employment to people indirectly
in the industries producing various means of transport and other transport equipments.
People can also provide repairing and maintenance services by opening service centres
at convenient locations.
f. Helps in labour mobility: Transport helps a lot in providing mobility to workers.
You may be aware that people from our country go to foreign countries to work
in different industries and factories. Foreigners also come India to work. In India,
people also move from one part to another in search of work. Similarly, it is not
always possible to have workers near the factory. Most industries have their own
transport system to bring the workers from where they reside to the place of work.
g. Helps in bringing nations together: Transport facilitates movement of people from
one country to another. It helps in exchange of cultures, views and practices between
the people of different countries. This brings about greater understanding among people
and awareness about different countries. Thus, it helps to promote a feeling of
Intext Questions 10.1
I. State which of the following statements are true and which are false.
a. In business, transport is considered as an auxiliary to trade.
b. Transport does not help in raising standard of living of the people.
c. Exchange of culture between nations becomes possible because of transport.
d. Transport does not create any employment opportunity.
e. Mobility of labour is facilitated by transport.
10.4 Modes of Transport
We find that basically transport is possible through land, air or water, which are called
the different modes of transport. On land we use trucks, tractors, etc., to carry goods; train,
bus, cars etc. to carry passengers. In air, we find aeroplanes, helicopters to carry passengers
as well as goods. Similarly in water we find ships, steamers, etc., to carry goods and
passengers. All these are known as various means of transport.
Let us discuss about various modes of transport.
The modes of transport can be broadly divided into three categories: Land transport, Water
transport and Air transport.
(I) Land Transport:
Land transport refers to activities of physical movement of goods and passengers on land.
This movement takes place on road, rail, rope or pipe. So land transport may further be
divided into Road transport, Rail transport, Ropeway transport, pipeline transport. Let us
know the details about each of them.
Modes of transport
a. Road Transport
Roads are the means that connect one place to another on the surface of the land. You must
have seen roads in your village, in towns and cities. Not all of them look alike. Some of them
are made of sand and some may be of chips and cement or coaltar. You find different
vehicles plying on roads like bullock carts, cycles, motorcycles, cars, truck, buses, etc. All
of these constitute different means of road transport
The means of road transport may be divided into three types: -
i. Man driven;
ii. Animal driven; and
iii. Motor driven.
You might have seen individuals carrying goods on their head or back, in bicycles or on
thelas, move from one place to other. People also ride a bicycle or use rickshaw to travel
short distances. We also find animal driven vehicles like carts (drawn by bullocks, camels,
horses, donkeys, etc.) used in rural areas to carry crops, straw, fodder and sometimes even
people. Sometimes even animals are directly used to carry goods from one place to another.
In areas, which are normally covered with snow throughout the year, we find sledges pulled
by dogs used to carry both passengers and goods.
Compared with man driven and animal-driven means of road transport, motor driven means
of transport have become more important over the years. This is due to their speedy
movement and larger carrying capacity. Extension of roads to every corner of the country
have also enhanced the use of motor driven transport. The types of motor vehicles used to
carry goods and passengers include auto-rickshaws, scooters, vans, buses, tempos and
trucks, etc. In Kolkata, tramway also forms part of road transport for carrying passengers.
Advantages of Road transport
Road transport has the following advantages.
(i) It is a relatively cheaper mode of transport as compared to other modes.
(ii) Perishable goods can be transported at a faster speed by road carriers over a short
(iii) It is a flexible mode of transport as loading and unloading is possible at any
destination. It provides door-to-door service.
(iv) It helps people to travel and carry goods from one place to another, in places
which are not connected by other means of transport like hilly areas.
Limitations of Road transport
It has the following limitations.
(i) Due to limited carrying capacity road transport is not economical for long distance
transportation of goods.
(ii) Transportation of heavy goods or goods in bulk by road involves high cost.
(iii) It is affected by adverse weather conditions. Floods, rain, landslide, etc., sometimes
create obstructions to road transport.
b. Rail transport
Transportation of goods and passengers on rail lines through trains is called rail transport. It
occupies an important place in land transport system of our country and is the most dependable
mode of transport to carry goods and passengers over a long distance. Besides long distance,
local transport of passengers is also provided by local trains or metro-rail in some metropolitan
cities. Rail transport is available throughout the country except some hilly or mountainous
regions. In India two types of trains are found. One is passenger train and other is goods
train. While passenger trains carry both human beings and a limited quantity of goods, the
goods trains are exclusively used for carrying goods from one place to another. These trains
are driven by rail engines and they use steam, diesel or electric power to move. Let us now
discuss the advantages and limitations of rail transport.
Advantages of Rail transport
(i) It is a convenient mode of transport for travlling long distances.
(ii) It is relatively faster than road transport.
(iii) It is suitable for carrying heavy goods in large quantities over long distances.
(iv) Its operation is less affected by adverse weathers conditions like rain, floods, fog, etc.
Limitations of Railway transport
(i) It is relatively expensive for carrying goods and passengers over short distances.
(ii) It is not available in remote parts of the country.
(iii) It provides service according to fixed time schedule and is not flexible for loading or
unloading of goods at any place.
(iv) It involves heavy losses of life as well as goods in case of accident.
c. Pipelines transport
In modern times, pipelines are used for various purposes. Water supply to residential and
commercial areas is carried on with the help of pipeline. Petroleum and natural gas are also
transported from one place to another through pipelines. This is the most convenient as well
as economical mode of transport for petroleum as well as natural gas in comparison to road
and rail transport, provided the volume to be transported is large. But the cost of installation
and maintenance requires large capital investment.
d. Ropeway transport
Ropeway refers to a mode of transport, which connects two places on the hills, or across a
valley or river. In the hilly areas, trolleys move on wheels connected to a rope and are used
for carrying passengers or goods, especially building materials, food, etc. The famous “Uran
Khatola Jagdamba” in Gujarat that carries pilgrims to the temple is an example of ropeway
transport, which carries more than 100 passengers at a time.
Intext Questions 10.2
I. Put a tick (√) mark against the correct statement.(your self in hard copy)
(i) Transportation means only sending goods and not the persons.
(ii) Transport removes distance barrier.
(iii) Pipeline transport is not a mode of land transport.
(iv) Road transport is not affected by adverse weather conditions.
(v) Rail Transport is a suitable mode of transport for carrying heavy and bulky
II. Match column A and B
Column A Column B
(i) Thelas a. facilitates movement in valleys
(ii) Ropeway b. mode of transport for carrying heavy and bulky goods
(iii) Sledge c. mode of transport for transporting gas
(iv) Railways d. means of transport driven by human beings
(v) Pipelines e. dogs are used to pull
(II) Water transport
Water transport refers to movement of goods and passengers on waterways by using various
means like boats, steamers, launches, ships, etc. With the help of these means goods and
passengers are carried to different places, both within as well as outside the country. Within
the country, rivers and canals facilitate the movement of boats, launches, etc. Since the
goods and passengers move inside the country, this type of transport is called inland water
transport. When the different means of transport are used to carry goods and passengers on
the sea route it is termed as ocean transport. Let us know further about these two types of
-Man driven Ropes
- Head or back of human being
- Carts drawn by man
- Thelas (push carts)
- Carts drawn by animals
- Scooter and motor cycle
- Auto rickshaw
- Passenger train
- Goods train
-Different Means of Land Transport:
I. Inland water transport
Inland water transport use boats, launches, barges, streamers, etc., to carry goods and
passengers on river and canal routes. These routes are called inland waterways and
are used in domestic or home trade to carry bulky goods. Passenger transport through
waterways is not so popular in our country. Inland water transport system exists only
in few states like. West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Tamil Nadu, etc.
II. Ocean transport
Ocean transport refers to movement of goods and passengers with the help of ships
through sea or ocean waterways. It plays an important role in the development of
international trade. It is also used for transporting goods and passengers in the coastal
areas. Ocean transport has its fixed route, which links almost all the countries of the world.
Sea transport may be of the following two types.
i. Coastal Shipping - In this transport, ships ply between the main ports of a
country. This helps in home trade, and also in carrying passengers within the
ii. Overseas shipping - In this transport, ships ply between different countries
separated by sea or ocean. It is mainly used for promotion and development of
international trade. It is economical means of transport to carry heavy machines and
goods in bulk. Overseas transport is carried out on fixed routes, which connect almost
all the countries. In ocean transport, different types of ships are used to carry passengers
These may be classified as under.
a. Liners - A liner is a passenger or cargo vessel, which belongs to a regular
shipping company. These ships ply over a fixed route according to a
prescribed schedule or timetable.
b. Tramps - A tramp is a cargo ship, which does not make regular trips but
plies whenever cargo is offered to it. It does not follow a fixed route or a
prescribed timetable like that of liners.
Advantages of water transport
Water Transport has the following advantages:
a. It is a relatively economical mode of transport for bulky and heavy goods.
b. It is a safe mode of transport with respect to occurance of accidents.
c. The cost of maintaining and constructing routes is very low as most of them are naturally
d. It promotes international trade.
Limitations of water transport
Water transport has the following limitations.
i. The depth and navigability of rivers and canals vary and thus, affect operations of
different transport vessels.
ii. It is a slow moving mode of transport and therefore not suitable for transport of
iii. It is adversely affected by weather conditions.
iv. Sea transport requires large investment on ships and their maintenance.
Different Means Water Transport :
Inland transport Ocean transport
Means Boats, Steamers, Barges, Launches Ships, Tankers, Submarines
Intext Questions 10.3
I. State which of the following statements are true and which are false.
(i) Inland waterways consist of sea and ocean.
(ii) Water transport is a very fast mode of transport.
(iii) Water transport facilitates international trade.
(iv) Overseas ships ply to the neighbouring countries
(v) Water transport is not affected by adverse weather conditions.
II. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences:
(i) _________ is a cargo ship which does not make regular trips.
(ii) Inland water transport is generally used in _________ trade.
(iii) Ships having fixed routes and plying regularly are called ______.
(iv) Ocean transport mainly facilitates _________ trade.
(v) In water transport, _____ investment is required in acquisition of ships.
(III) Air transport
This is the fastest mode of transport. It carries goods and passengers through airways by
using different aircrafts like passenger aircraft, cargo aircraft, helicopters, etc. Besides
passengers it generally carries goods that are less bulky or of high value. In hilly and
mountainous areas where other mode of transport is not accessible, air transport is an
important as well as convenient mode. It is mostly used for transporting goods and passengers
during natural calamities like earthquake and floods, etc. During war, air transport plays an
important role in carrying soldiers as well as supplies to the required areas.
Air transport may be classified as domestic and international air transport. While domestic
air transport mainly facilitates movement within the country, international air transport is
used for carrying goods and passengers between different countries. Air transport is carried
out in fixed air routes, which connect almost all the countries.
Advantages of Air transport
It has the following advantages.
i. It is the fastest mode of transport. (not an advantage)
ii. It is very useful in transporting goods and passengers to the area, which are not
accessible by any other means.
iii. It is the most convenient mode of transport during natural calamities.
iv. It provides vital support to the national security and defence.
Limitations of air transport
It has the following limitations.
i. It is relatively more expensive mode of transport.
ii. It is not suitable for transporting heavy and bulky goods.
iii. It is affected by adverse weather conditions.
iv. It is not suitable for short distance travel.
v. In case of accidents, it results in heavy losses of goods, property and life.
Different Means Air Transport:
Domestic air transport International air transport
Means Aeroplanes, Helicopters Aeroplanes
Intext Questions 10.4
I. State which of the followings. Statements are true and which are false.
(i) Air transport is the fastest mode of transport.
(ii) Air transport is not affected by adverse weather condition.
(iii) Air transport is not suitable for short distance.
(iv) Helicopters are generally used for international flights.
(v) Air transport does not provide any support to national security.
10.5 What You Have Learnt
! Transport refers to the activity that facilitates physical movement of goods as well as
individuals from one place to another through various means.
! The importance of transport lies in the following:
(i) Makes available raw materials to manufacturers or producers,
(ii) Makes available goods to customers;
(iii) Enhances standard of living;
(iv) Helps during emergencies and natural calamities;
(v) Helps in creation of employment;
(vi) Helps in labour mobility;
(vii) Helps in bringing nations together
! Different modes of transport are as follows:
! Road transport
! Inland water
! Domestic air
! Rail transport transport
! Pipe-line transport
! Ocean transport.
! International air transport
! Ropeway transport.
! The different means of water transport to carry goods and passengers are
Inland transport Ocean transport
Means Boats, Steamers, Barges, Launches Ships, Tankers, Submarines
! The different means of air transport to carry goods and passengers are
Domestic air transport International air transport
Means Aeroplanes, Helicopters Aeroplanes
1. What is meant by transport? Describe its importance in business.
2. What is meant by modes of transport? State the different modes of transport.
3. Describe the various modes of land transport.
4. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of Railway transport.
5. Explain the various types of Road transport.
6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Road transport.
7. Classify the various modes of water transport.
8. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of water transport.
9. Distinguish between Inland and Ocean transport.
10. Distinguish between liners and tramps.
11. Describe and advantages and disadvantages of Air transport .
10.7 Key to Intext Questions
10.1 I True- a, c, e. False- b, d.
10.2 I Correct- ii, v Wrong- i, iii, iv
II i. d ii. a iii. e iv. b v. c
10.3 I True iii, iv False i, ii, v
II i. Tramp ii. Home/Domestic iii. Liners
iv. Foreign v. Heavy
10.4 I True i, iii False ii, iv, v
Activity For You
1 Observe the various modes of transport near your residence and write their advantages
2 Visit the nearest market of your area and ask the trader which mode of transport they are
using and why?
3 In your family, what modes of transport are being used on different occasions? Make a list